#Step 1: Set your working directory.
#This allows you to import, export, and save plots all in the folder of your choice,
#ideally one that you can remember how to find again.
#You can set your working directory via the RStudio menus,
#but I suggest you hardcode it so that you don't have to remember
#all the steps every time or where you keep the files.
#What is your directory now?
#Let's change it.
#gives an error.
#If you don't know what the problem is, copy the error message to your search engine.
#I find from the first link that R needs either forward slashes OR
#double backslashes. It can't use single backslashes.
getwd() #Both work!
#Step 2: Import your data.
#Download these data in .csv format and place the file in your working directory.
titmouse<- read.table(file="blog_banding_data.csv", header=TRUE, sep=",")
#These data are part of that we used in Curry and Patten (2014).
names(titmouse) #lists all the variable (column) names.
str(titmouse) #shows the data types.
#There are factors, integers ("int"), and numbers (num).
#Later, how will you bring your own data into R?
#It's best to have your data formatted as .csv/.txt as we do here.
#These are readable without any special programs and useable in any program.
#Most programs also allow export in some variation of those formats.
#It is possible to import from an Excel file but potentially difficult
#I find it much simpler to just save any spreadsheets I have as .csv or .txt,
#and it's a good habit to know how to work with those formats as they will be used
#in many programs as a basic file format.
?read.table #gives additional options, most notable read.csv, for importing text files.
#You can change the delimiter (the text that separates each column) to match your file.
#This can often be one of the most annoying/frustrating steps if the data aren't formatted just so,
#so don't feel silly if your data end up giving you trouble here.
#Step 3: Some descriptive statistics.
summary(titmouse) #lists all the summaries for each variable.
#Some are irrelevant (like datebanded, which is not really a factor, and bandnumber, which is arbitrary).
#First, we need some more categories. Indexsum represents a hybrid index. 0 is one species and 6 is the other.
titmouse$species<-titmouse$indexsum # create a new column with indexsum data copied.
#Always copy your column or dataframe when doing something big like this.
#While it won't mess up your original file (this is only in your R session),
#it will save you trouble from having to reimport your file if you mess things up.
#Hmm, that's pretty inefficient though it works for small numbers of changes.
titmouse[titmouse$species>0&titmouse$species<6,]$species = "hybrid"
str(titmouse) #Now we have a nice species-based grouping variable.
#Why does it give us NA?
#Yay! It works when we remove NAs (missing data).
#You can also try out other variations on selecting data to get means.
#To get means for more than one column, there's a handy colMeans function.
#Another error. "x" must be numeric. We have factors in this data frame.
#Oddly, several other functions use "na.action" with different options,
#but you can find those in the help files as needed.
#What about means for each group?
tapply(titmouse$crestlength, titmouse$species, FUN=mean)
#HEY IT DIDN'T WORK AGAIN.
#Wait, down in the help file
#You can see an example that includes na.rm=TRUE.
tapply(titmouse$crestlength, #the variable we're interested in
titmouse$species, #index (i.e., the grouping variable)
#Now it works. You also see in the help file several other options for sorting by
#a grouping (or "INDEX" as this function calls it). Let's try aggregate.
#We'll test the third method, with formulas, to get you used to the common R formula.
#We want to see crest length grouped by species.
#In later formulas (like for plotting and statistics),
#it means that crest length is a function of species.
#Ooh la la. Data in a nice format! Skimming help is always a good idea.
#That includes all observations, even NAs.
#Oh no! It won't let us see how many samples we have without NAs.
#Go look at the data frame in the global environment, and you can see that indeed two rows
#have NA for crest length.
#Coefficient of variation
#Googling suggests that you'd have to install a package to get this automatically.
#Let's try making a function instead!
se <- function(x) sd(x)/sqrt(length(x))
#Hmm, those pesky NAs.
#This doesn't work either, because we didn't code in na.rm=TRUE into the function.
se.na.rm(titmouse$crestlength) #It works, but what if we want the option to code na.rm=FALSE?
#Confidence interval (95%)
#For fitted models, R will do this automatically, but it's good to know how they are
#calculated by hand for the occasions you might need them
#(say, putting confidence intervals on a graph).
plot(mean.crest) #A very simple graph!
points(upper95) #add another point!
points(lower95) #and another one!
#Obviously this is not what we'd want a confidence interval to look like, but we'll deal with those later.
#From where do people get 1.96?
n<-length(titmouse$crestlength) #what's our sample size? We calculated that earlier, too.
qt(1-0.05/2, df=n-1) #t distribution, for our exact degrees of freedom.
qt(1-0.05/2, df=Inf) #the "idealized" case where we get the 1.96, as for the normal distribution next.
qnorm(1-0.05/2) #normal distribution.
#Hypothesis testing is discussed with t-tests. R has good options in t.test().
?t.test #indicates you can select the other options from the textbook, such as
#one-sided or two-sided, paired t-tests, and equal variance or unequal variance.
#Sample from a population.
#Step 4: Exiting without losing your work.
#Save early and often on your .R file (this is your code and you don't want to lose it!)
#When it's time to exit RStuido, save the workspace in the RStudio menu
#by "Session">"Save workspace as". You can reload the .RData file later.
#It automatically goes to your working directory but you can move it if you want.
#Finally, a note on careful coding. I have on occasion worked with a bunch of objects
#and values, then closed my code, and opened it later to get a different result.
#Somewhere I left an old variable value. So, now I close RStudio once I'm done,
#never save the workspace, and then re-run the code from the start to make sure I
#didn't miss any new bits of code I might have added to correct problems.
#Finally, always comment! It's easy to forget what certain parts of the code do,
#and commenting will save you days of trying to figure it out.
#Plus, if someone else needs to use your code/dataset, or you submit to a journal that
#wants data and/or code, you'll be ready!
#Sneak preview: next week we'll look at plots!
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